1. “Housing the aristocracy was not just one of Heian-kyō’s functions, it was one of the primary reasons for establishing a permanent capital in the first place” (p. 3). Explain the implications of this sentence and, if possible, how it pertains to Emperor Kanmu’s centralizing policies.
-Unambiguous act of rebellion
-Tie aristocrats and emperor strongly
2. Identify and describe the status-specific elements of Heian-kyō’s urban plan and architecture.
-Enclosed collar-and-sash by mountains and rivers
-Adopting the Chinese capital model
-Mimic the majestic imperial cityscape of Chang'an and Luoyang
-Geometric grid plan
3. What caused the proliferation of shinden-style residences?
-Shinden-style palaces began to proliferate from about the late eighth century when members of the aristocracy started mimicking the forms of the Imperial Palace when building their own official urban residences.