The first lesson of ASNS2632(The Pre modern social history of Japan) has started.
Major topics start off from 16th century which is pre modern era lead by Tokugawa. In other word, it was called pre Tokugawa Japan.
During 16th century, it was the first time that West(Portuguese) came to Japan with gun and cross. Most of them are missionaries, traders, and soldiers.
Not only the gun and cross, but also they have taught modern technologies such as castle building, western products, etc.
They were significant factor for Japanese that they reconsolidate Japan as Tenka.
Following the history there were three conquerors in Japan.
Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Oda Nobunaga had made the basic Tenka which means he almost conquer Japan but he betrayed by his subordinate Akechi Mituhide.
However, he have done
- Military unification
- Buddhist suppression
- Military technology(Ex. Used gun in battle of Nagashino)
The reasons why he could done those stuffs are
- Authorized by emperor
- Strong military
- Controlled economy
However after he taken the real power he have done and tried,
- Military unifier
- Social reform
- Become world conquer
There are many things that he have done for social reform
- wide range of economic reform
- survey land
- Sword hunt
- Centralized Daimyo
Tokugawa IeyasuHe might be the longest conquer of Japan in the history. After Hedeyoshi have died Hedeyoshi asked him to become next conquer. There was a conflict between Ishida mitsunari and Tokugawa Ieyasu that who become the next lord but Ishida was not popular because he did not join the Korean war.
However, he have done
- Tax and currency reform
- Support Christian
- Become Shogun(authorized by emperor)
Not only because of above but there was long peace which is created by Tokugawa.
This is called Tokugawa pax.
As you can see from this figure Warrior is the top ranked people.
They are only 6% of the population in Japan at that time.
Also they are privileged class. The reason why they were privileged is that I guess they had power to protect their land for others and instead of that other class pay the tax to them. However, still need further more research for this.
The second top ranked in the figure.
84% of the population in Japan.
As the professor said, it's might not accurate to call them peasantry. Because, it's hard to jumble together that some of peasant doesn't have any power and just rent the land from land owner and some of peasant lend the land. The peasant who lend the land and had massive power at surrounded land called Gounou（豪農）.
However, during the era, producer have much more power than others. The reason why they are ranked in second of the class is that farm produce is much more reliable than any other things even the money. Especially rice crop is very important for Japanese and it's still cropping in Japan.
Artisan is people who makes something which was necessary for people's life.
They are producer like same as peasantry so they ranked in third.
One of feature of artisan is most of artisan wanted to become Oyakata（親方） and they first become discipline of Oyakata. The detail is written here in Japanese.
Merchant think as exploiters because they didn't produce anything but they become rich by trading. Instead of that they were poor in society.
2.5％ of the population.
They are untouchables because of their occupation. Untouchables usually do the job which people don't want to do such as funeral, cleaning, killing, washing dead body. Because of these jobs most of people didn't want to communicate with them. As I think they are discriminated.
One of the interesting point is they are outcast in the society at that time but might still outcast these days. There are also difference between Japan and Australia that how to treat about untouchable. In this figure untouchables written in tiny word but when I had a class yesterday professor wrote untouchables in part of class. It might be going far away but I think that Japanese don't want to write about untouchables so much. In fact, talking about untouchables is still taboo in Japan.
Baku-han system is the system to conquer Daimyo by Bakufu or Shogun.
There are several type of daimyo at this time.
- Fudai or hereditary house
- Shinpan or collateral
- Tozama or outer-lords
This system was quite successful to keep the peace in Japan but also because of this system Bakufu might fall down. In the end of edo period the warrior was unnecessary and especially outer lords was in low status. They had discontent of their treatment.
Later on they start anti-Bakufu movement but this will be another story.
However, this is it for yesterday class.It's quite a lot so I'm afraid about this subject but also it's quite interesting to do this. well, see you next time